Indonesia Reference

Indonesia, officially known as the Republic of Indonesia, is an archipelagic country located in Southeast Asia. It is located between the Indian and Pacific Oceans and spans two continents, Asia and Oceania. Indonesia shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. The country’s geographical coordinates range from approximately 6°N to 11°S latitude and 95°E to 141°E longitude.



Indonesia has a tropical climate characterized by high humidity and temperatures that remain fairly constant throughout the year. The country experiences two primary seasons: the wet season (October to April) and the dry season (May to September). The climate varies across the archipelago, ranging from tropical rainforest in Sumatra and Borneo to savanna and desert climates in parts of eastern Indonesia.


Indonesia is renowned for its rich biodiversity and is home to a vast array of flora and fauna, including numerous endemic species. The country’s diverse ecosystems support iconic animals such as orangutans, Sumatran tigers, Komodo dragons, and Javan rhinoceroses. The waters surrounding Indonesia teem with marine life, including coral reefs, sea turtles, and various species of fish.

Longest Rivers:

The longest rivers in Indonesia include the Kapuas River on the island of Borneo, the Barito River in Kalimantan, and the Mahakam River, also located in Kalimantan. These rivers play a vital role in the country’s ecology, economy, and transportation network.

Highest Mountains:

Indonesia is home to numerous volcanic peaks, with some of the highest mountains in Southeast Asia. The highest mountain in Indonesia and the highest island peak in the world is Puncak Jaya, also known as Carstensz Pyramid, located in Papua province. Other notable peaks include Mount Kerinci on Sumatra and Mount Rinjani on Lombok.



Indonesia has a rich archaeological heritage, with evidence of human habitation dating back over a million years. The earliest known hominid fossils, belonging to the species Homo erectus, have been found on the island of Java. The archipelago has been inhabited by various ethnic groups, including the Austronesian-speaking peoples who migrated to the region around 2,500 BCE.

Ancient Kingdoms:

The history of Indonesia is marked by the rise and fall of several powerful maritime kingdoms, including Srivijaya and Majapahit. These kingdoms played a crucial role in shaping the region’s culture, trade networks, and political landscape. The Srivijaya Empire, based on the island of Sumatra, controlled maritime trade routes in Southeast Asia during the 7th to 13th centuries.

Colonial Era:

Indonesia’s history was profoundly influenced by European colonial powers, particularly the Dutch and Portuguese. The Dutch East India Company established trading posts in the archipelago in the 17th century, eventually leading to Dutch colonial rule. Indonesia remained under Dutch control until gaining independence in 1945.

Independence and Modern Age:

Indonesia declared its independence from Dutch colonial rule on August 17, 1945, following a protracted struggle for freedom. Sukarno, the country’s first president, led the newly independent nation, advocating a policy of non-alignment and promoting nationalism and economic self-reliance. In the subsequent decades, Indonesia experienced periods of political instability, economic growth, and social change.


Indonesia is the world’s fourth-most populous country, with a population exceeding 270 million people. The population is ethnically diverse, comprising over 300 distinct ethnic groups, each with its own language, culture, and traditions. The largest ethnic group is the Javanese, followed by the Sundanese, Malay, and Batak peoples. The official language is Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), which serves as the lingua franca across the archipelago.

Administrative Divisions

Indonesia is divided into 34 provinces, each with its own governor and legislative assembly. The provinces are further subdivided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), which are then divided into districts (kecamatan) and villages (desa or kelurahan). The administrative divisions of Indonesia, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Jakarta – Population: 10.6 million
  2. West Java – Population: 49.3 million
  3. East Java – Population: 40.7 million
  4. Central Java – Population: 34.8 million
  5. North Sumatra – Population: 14.4 million
  6. Banten – Population: 13.9 million
  7. South Sulawesi – Population: 8.7 million
  8. West Sumatra – Population: 5.5 million
  9. East Kalimantan – Population: 3.7 million
  10. Aceh – Population: 5.2 million

10 Largest Cities by Population

Indonesia’s largest cities by population include:

  1. Jakarta
  2. Surabaya
  3. Bandung
  4. Medan
  5. Semarang
  6. Makassar
  7. Palembang
  8. Depok
  9. Tangerang
  10. South Tangerang

Education Systems

Education in Indonesia is provided by both the government and private institutions. Primary and secondary education are compulsory and free of charge, although additional fees may apply for certain expenses. Indonesia has several top universities, including the University of Indonesia, Gadjah Mada University, and Bandung Institute of Technology.



Indonesia has over 200 airports, with major international airports located in Jakarta, Bali, Surabaya, and Medan.


The country’s railway network spans approximately 6,500 kilometers (4,000 miles), connecting major cities and regions across the archipelago.


Indonesia has an extensive network of highways and roads, with major highways connecting cities and provinces throughout the country.


Indonesia has several major ports, including the Port of Tanjung Priok in Jakarta, the Port of Tanjung Perak in Surabaya, and the Port of Belawan in Medan.

Country Facts

  • Population: Over 270 million
  • Capital: Jakarta
  • Official Language: Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia)
  • Religion: Islam (majority), Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism
  • Currency: Indonesian Rupiah (IDR)
  • ISO Country Code: ID
  • International Calling Code: +62
  • Top-Level Domain: .id