The kingdoms of the Mongols
Around 1200, Genghis-khan laid the foundation for a Mongol Empire which, under Kublai-khan, covered most of Asia except Japan and Southeast Asia. This in turn led to a more lively relationship with Europe. During the Yüan dynasty, China ruled China until 1368. The last major Mongol conquests of Timur Lenk affected India, Iran and Asia Minor, but did not last long. A descendant founded in 1526 the Great Mogul Kingdom in India, which before the decay of the 18th century included both Northern India and Deccan. Only the Sepoy uprising in 1858 ended this kingdom.
As population increased according to Countryaah, about 1250 a new Turkish tribe emerged in the Ottomans, who were expelled from Central Asia by the Mongols. They founded Ottoman Turkey and spread their power throughout Asia Minor, Syria, Mesopotamia and parts of the Arabian coast, besides areas in Europe.
|Country||Percentage of the population with access to toilets (per cent)||Proportion of the population who have access to clean water (percent)|
|Afghanistan||43.4 (2017)||63.0 (2015)|
|Bahrain||100.0 (2017)||100.0 (2015)|
|Bangladesh||48.2 (2017)||97.3 (2015)|
|Bhutan||69.3 (2017)||97.6 (2015)|
|Brunei||96.3 (2015)||99.5 (2015)|
|Burma||64.3 (2017)||67.5 (2015)|
|Philippines||76.5 (2017)||90.5 (2015)|
|United Arab Emirates||98.6 (2017)||99.6 (2015)|
|India||59.5 (2017)||87.6 (2015)|
|Indonesia||73.1 (2017)||89.5 (2015)|
|Iraq||94.1 (2017)||86.1 (2015)|
|Iran||88.4 (2017)||94.9 (2015)|
|Israel||100.0 (2017)||100.0 (2015)|
|Japanese||99.9 (2017)||98.9 (2015)|
|Yemen||59.1 (2017)||70.4 (2015)|
|Jordan||97.3 (2017)||98.6 (2015)|
|Cambodia||59.2 (2017)||75.0 (2015)|
|Kazakhstan||97.9 (2017)||91.1 (2015)|
|China||84.8 (2017)||95.8 (2015)|
|Kyrgyzstan||96.5 (2017)||87.3 (2015)|
|Kuwait||100.0 (2017)||100.0 (2015)|
|Laos||74.5 (2017)||80.4 (2015)|
|Lebanon||98.5 (2017)||92.3 (2015)|
|Malaysia||99.6 (2017)||96.4 (2015)|
|Maldives||99.4 (2017)||97.9 (2015)|
|Mongolia||58.5 (2017)||83.2 (2015)|
|Nepal||62.1 (2017)||87.7 (2015)|
|Oman||100.0 (2017)||90.9 (2015)|
|Pakistan||59.9 (2017)||88.5 (2015)|
|Qatar||100.0 (2017)||100.0 (2015)|
|Saudi Arabia||100.0 (2017)||100.0 (2015)|
|Singapore||100.0 (2017)||100.0 (2015)|
|Sri Lanka||95.8 (2017)||92.3 (2015)|
|South Korea||100.0 (2017)||99.6 (2015)|
|Syria||91.2 (2017)||96.7 (2015)|
|Tajikistan||97.0 (2017)||74.1 (2015)|
|Thailand||98.8 (2017)||98.2 (2015)|
|Turkmenistan||98.7 (2017)||94.5 (2015)|
|Uzbekistan||100.0 (2017)||91.5 (2012)|
|Vietnam||83.5 (2017)||91.2 (2015)|
|East Timor||53.5 (2017)||70.2 (2015)|
However, in the 16th century, modern Iran emerged and prevented further expansion eastward. In 1747 Afghanistan stood out, while Chiva and Bokhara were all independent Turkish empires in the 16th century. In China, the national Ming dynasty took over after the Mongols, but new conquerors from the north arrived on the imperial throne in 1644. These were the Tongan-based men’s crowds. For a while, they strengthened China’s power in Central Asia and made Tibet a sound one.
Korea, Annam, Siam and Mongolia recognized their supremacy, but around 1800 began the internal decay that coincided with the pressure of Europeans to open the country for trade.
The colonial past
When Vasco da Gama found the sea route to India in 1498, a competition began between Western European maritime powers for trade sites and colonies. In the second half of the 16th century, the Portuguese reached Japan, which however closed the country to Europeans in 1637. A small Dutch trading seat was all that could continue.
The Portuguese were expelled by the Spaniards from the Philippines and by the Dutch from Malaya. But around 1800, the British gained control of both Malaya and India, while the Dutch retained the East Indies. The British East India Company’s defeated India until in 1858 was placed directly under the crown. In the 1880s, Burma was added to the British colonial empire, and the French settled in Indochina, while Siam remained free as a suitable buffer state.
In the northwest, the power struggle between England and Russia ended with Afghanistan being recognized as a British area of interest by a treaty in 1907.
While European influence in South and Southeast Asia led to colonization, the penetration took on other forms in East Asia. Here, too, the competition with Tsar-Russia began to prevail from the mid-1800s. In addition, US interests in trade and mission came. When China avoided becoming a colony, it was partly because, after all, the country had greater resilience than India, partly because the Chinese territory faced major organizational problems, and partly the infiltration began at a later stage, namely after the opium war of 1839-1842, and during increasing competition with Russia and later with Japan.
Vladivostok was founded after the surrender in 1860 of a larger area north of Amur and east of Ussuri. The economic infiltration of China took place from forced relocation ports and concessions, and was close to leading to the disintegration of the country after the Japanese-Chinese War in 1894-1895.
By the turn of the century, Japan had become a modern superpower both economically and militarily. Like China, Japan was forced open in 1853 by American Matthew C. Perry, but it was politically strong and unified. Japan’s development in the second half of the 19th century misses unparalleled in Asia.
The twentieth century has been marked partly by the disputes between European-American and Russian influence, and partly by Asian reaction to the influence of the west. In addition, Japan’s economic and military expansion in East Asia comes, which initially relied on the principles used by Europeans, but later threatened the European influence itself and reinforced the Asian aspirations.
Competition between Russia and Japan led to the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-1905, and the Russians were expelled from Korea and Manjury. From World War I, Japan increasingly penetrated old European markets in China and Southeast Asia. In 1932, it annexed Man Jury and also began to incorporate parts of northern China in the 1930s, but it led to open war in 1937. Japan in 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, with the result that in 1945 it lost all land wins and was occupied in the period 1945–1952.
The Russian Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing wars of war led to a short-term disintegration in the Russian parts of Central Asia, but in the 1920s the Soviet Union regained control. The country supported Mongolia when in 1922 it disassociated itself from China and declared itself an independent republic. It also worked through the national communist parties that were established in many Asian countries in the early 1920s. In China, the Chinese Communist Party’s policies suffered a defeat in 1927, but when the country became a people ‘s republic in 1949, the Soviet Union gained a dominant influence until 1960. In cooperation and later in competition with China, the country sought to expand its sphere of influence in Asia. Tibet was incorporated in China in 1951.