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Brazil

Yearbook 2007

Brazil. The state-owned oil company Petrobras announced in early November the discovery of a new oil deposit at very large depth at the so-called Tupí field outside Rio de Janeiro, which can contain the equivalent of 8 billion barrels. If the calculations are correct, Brazil can become one of the world's largest oil exporting countries within 5-10 years, and President Lula da Silva stated that Brazil aims to one day become a member of OPEC. Most analysts agreed that the deposit could affect the balance of power throughout South America, where Venezuela, under Hugo Chávez, dominated the political scene, partly through its position in the oil world. The discovery also affected Brazil's December negotiations with Bolivia on natural gas imports, where Petrobras had major interests.

Otherwise, President Lula was also hired this year by a series of corruption scandals within his own party Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT), just as he has done since the takeover in 2003, and two ministers were forced to resign during the year. The US data company Cisco turned out, for example. have paid bribes and evaded tax of between $ 500 and $ 800 million. A commission of inquiry also ruled that corruption in the Brazilian Civil Aviation Administration was widespread, especially at São Paulo International Airport Guarulhos. On December 4, Senate President Renan Calheiros also resigned because of his involvement in a major corruption crisis.

According to CountryAAH, another problem solvable was the crime. The year began with a wave of drug-related violence in Rio de Janeiro when 25 people were killed in three days. In June, a total of 1,350 police officers with helicopters and armored vehicles carried out the most extensive police operation to date in Complexo do Alemão, one of Rio's largest slums and a drug trafficking center in the city. In a five-hour fire, 19 people died. At the end of the year, however, a project for Public Security and Citizenship (Pronasci) was launched, which for the first time will combine traditional law enforcement with preventive social programs for vulnerable groups, especially young people in big cities, and improvements to the notoriously riotous prisons.

On July 17, a passenger aircraft crashed into the Congonhas airport in São Paulo. The accident was the second worst in Brazil's history; all 189 people on board were killed.

2007 Brazil

In Brazil, the average income among whites is 2.5 times that of Afro-Brazilians. 69% of the country's poor are therefore of African origin, although this population constitutes only 45.3% of the country's total population. In 2001, unemployment was 11% among Afro-Brazilians, while it was 7.5% among whites. Only about 2% of Afro-Brazilians start at university, while the number among whites is 11%.

Under the heading "For a Globalization of the World Social Forum", the second summit of the World Social Forum was held in the South Brazilian city of Porto Alegre from 31 January to 5 February 2002. The Summit was held in parallel with the World Economic Forum meeting in New York, and involved 5000 organizations analyzing, exchanging ideas, debating and outlining alternatives as part of the anti-globalization struggle. Four countries accounted for 80% of participants: Brazil with 8503 delegates, Italy with 993, Argentina with 924 and France with 718. There were only about 100 delegates from all over Asia, and the Indian delegates therefore proposed that the 2004 summit should be held in India.

On March 30, around 500 members of the landless movement MST invaded a estate belonging to President Cardoso's children, with the intention of forcing the government to release land to implement land reform in the area, located 700 km southeast of Brasilia. MST Chief Coordinator Joao Pedro Stédile stated that the occupation was an "extreme step taken by the landless as a result of the failure to meet their demands". Several months earlier, the landless in the affected area of ​​Minas Gerais had made their claim for the transfer of land, deeds and credits to 200 families.

2003 PT to power

Faced with the threat of a possible left-wing victory in the October 2002 elections and the region's economic instability, the dollar began to rise. To maintain stability, the Cardoso government negotiated a $ 30 billion loan in August. US $ in place with IMF.

After trying 3 times earlier, in October PT's Lula da Silva finally managed to win over the bourgeois candidate José Serra. Lula's victory over Serra in the 2nd rounds was massive (60%) and made possible because the Left had allied with parties in the center and out on the right to reduce market fears, and at the same time it had promised to honor its debt obligations - including payments of interest and repayments on the huge Brazilian foreign debt. Despite the economic and political tensions with foreign and domestic interests, Lula came to power backed by $ 52 million. Brazilian voters with promises to strengthen the country's economic independence, support Mercosur's common strategies, and implement a gradual redistribution of the economy, thus reducing the huge inequalities that has plagued the Brazilian economy for decades.

In March 2003, MST launched a new wave of land invasions aimed at launching land reform. That same year, a rocket exploded during the launch in Alcántara, killing 21 people. Lula signed an agreement with the IMF on a new race for disbursement in 2004 to prevent possible financial turmoil. At the same time, the loan institution agreed to defer the repayment term on Brazil's foreign debt from 2005 to 2006.

Also in 2003, the Senate discussed a tightening of the gun laws. Tight rules were issued for the issue of weapons permits and a strict penal framework for illegal weapons possession was established. It was decided that a referendum would be held in 2005 on the subject. About 40,000 are killed each year by gunshots in Brazil - most in urban areas. Brazil has a world first place in this field.

In May, Brazil received a Global Health Award - Gates 2003 - for its national program to combat HIV/AIDS. The program was considered pioneering in its combination of free access to AIDS medicine and highly aggressive media campaign to curb the AIDS epidemic. The government decided to apply the price of DKK 1 million. US $ to support groups treating HIV infected children and adult carriers. Already in 1996, Brazil had guaranteed free access to HIV inhibiting drugs.

In October, the UN expert on illegal executions, Asma Jahangir, criticized the human rights situation in the country. Jahangir had visited Brazil to investigate torture and murder charges, allegedly committed by Brazilian police. After visiting Borel and Jacarezinho, two of the most violent favelas in Rio de Janeiro, the expert declared that: “Brazil is a democracy. Still, I found in these districts a miserable situation where the judiciary does not reach out ”. During the visit, he had spoken to over 20 mothers and other family members of people who had apparently been killed in police hands.

Jahangir stated that despite the government's efforts to fight impunity and reduce violence, it was urgent to implement measures to ensure greater respect for human rights. He added that the seriously worsening human rights situation in Brazil cannot be compared to anywhere else in the world. Acc. According to a report from the Center for Global Justice, there are now death patrols in 14 of Brazil's 27 states.

At the 2003 WTO Annual Meeting in Cancun, Brazil was in the lead of the Third World in the demands of the rich countries, which eventually caused the summit to collapse because the rich countries would not grant concessions to the poor. However, most of the changes have been concentrated on foreign policy, while the new government has followed the previous government's neoliberal policy in a number of fields, which has led to a number of strikes facing government policy in 2003.

 

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