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Germany

Yearbook 2007

2007 GermanyGermany. According to CountryAAH, Mounir Motassadeq was sentenced in January to 15 years in prison for assisting al-Qaeda members in the plans for the September 9, 2001 terrorist attack against the United States. This was the third time the Hamburg court sentenced Motassadeq, who again denied he knew of the plans. The first time was in 2003, in a case that was later annulled, and the second time was in 2005 when the prosecution involved membership in a terrorist organization.

A Stuttgart court in February pardoned Brigitte Mohnhaupt, a former member of the city guerrilla Red Army faction (RAF). In 1985, Mohnhaupt had been sentenced to life imprisonment for interference with, among other things. nine murders. She was no longer considered a threat to society and was released in March, despite protests from some politicians and relatives of the victims.

2007 Germany

This year's only election was held in the city of Bremen in May. The result was that the Social Democrats in the SPD formed government with the Greens after having co-ruled with the Christian Democratic CDU for twelve years.

During the first half of the year, Germany was the EU's Presidency. Chancellor Angela Merkel made it clear that the highest priority was to create a new EU treaty instead of the constitution that was scrapped when voters in France and the Netherlands voted no in 2005. In June, before Germany handed over the Presidency, EU members agreed on the framework for a new "reform treaty" and mandated an IGC to elaborate on the details.

The agreement was seen as a success for Merkel, who was also praised for the summit of the eight G8 industrialized countries, also held in June. The climate issue dominated the meeting, and Merkel was hailed for having been with the United States on a letter of intent to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The health resort of Heiligendamm on the Baltic Sea, where the meeting was held, was completely blocked off with fences and a massive police raid to keep thousands of globalization opponents and other protesters at bay.

A new left-wing party was formed in June, when the two parts of the Alliance Alliance Die Linke completed the collaboration by merging. Thus was dissolved WASG, which consisted of defunct Social Democrats led by former Finance Minister Oskar Lafontaine, and PDS, heir to the communists in former East Germany. Die Linke emerged as an alliance in the Bundestag election in 2005 and received 8 percent of the vote.

The city of Duisburg was shaken in August by the murders of six Italians who were shot to death outside a restaurant. At least some of them were found to be linked to the Italian mafia, which was reported to have extensive drug trafficking in Germany.

Warnings had been going on for months about an increased risk of terrorism in Germany when police arrested three young men in September and seized large amounts of explosives. The three - two Germans who converted to Islam and a Turkish citizen living in the country - were said to have planned attacks on Frankfurt Airport as well as several US targets in Germany. The men were said to belong to an Islamist organization with roots in Uzbekistan and links to the al-Qaeda terror network.

The leader of the Christian Social CSU in Bavaria, Edmund Stoiber, resigned in the fall as party leader. Stoiber also left the post of head of government in the state, a post he had held since 1993. New party leader for CSU, which is CDU's sister party in Bavaria, became Erwin Huber, while Günther Beckstein became new prime minister.

Deputy Chancellor and Labor Minister Franz Müntefering resigned in November, citing his wife was seriously ill with cancer. Müntefering had held a key position in the work of holding together the government coalition between his own SPD and Merkel's CDU. New Vice Chancellor became Foreign Minister Frank-Walter Steinmeier, also he Social Democrat.

The train driver of the trade union GDL reached a preliminary agreement in December with the train company Deutsche Bahn, which was reported to mean a double-digit pay raise. GDL's 34,000 locomotives had struck on several occasions beginning in July. Chaos occurred in both freight and passenger traffic when traffic was suspended for up to three days in a strike action that was reported to be one of the most extensive in German history.

At the end of the year, a package of measures was adopted to substantially reduce carbon dioxide emissions up to 2020 through investments in, among other things. alternative energy sources, cleaner coal burning and new car taxes.

The Prehistory of Germany

In prehistoric times, Germany was a very disparate area, and cultural development differed in the different regions. The northwestern part of the country shows a strong connection to the Nordic countries in most periods; northeastern Germany has had a similar development as in Poland; the middle, eastern part of Germany has been heavily influenced by Bohemia and the Danube area and has been closely associated with Austria and Hungary. The Rhine area, on the other hand, is strongly Western European.

Germany had a unified culture first in historical times. The oldest prehistoric finds from the German area can be linked to the Clactonia culture from ancient Paleolithic times. There are a number of discoveries linked to the Acheuléen culture, and from the Mousterian a number of discoveries have been made of implements and skeletons of Neanderthal humans.

In Late Paleolithic times, hunting became more specialized and more effective. This is the time for the magnificent cave art in Western Europe. From the end of the Paleolithic period, the North German Hamburg and Ahrensburg cultures are known. Tools and bone material testify here to specialized reindeer hunters. Cultural development in the Mesolithic era shows close connection with the development in southern Scandinavia. Duvensee represents an important site that is at the same time as the Danish Maglemose culture. In the rest of Germany there are different Mesolithic cultural groups.

The transition to the younger Stone Age (Neolithic Age) is characterized by the introduction of agriculture. The oldest Neolithic culture in Germany is represented by band ceramic groups. These spread eastwards across the southern and central German plains and developed into various regional groups. In the northeast, the hopper culture dominated. In the west, the Cortaillod culture spread. Some time later, ceramic ceramic cultural groups came to form a center in Saxony - Thuringia.

The transition to the Bronze Age

The transition to the Bronze Age is estimated at approx. 2300 BC, and the oldest part of the period is characterized by the Aunjetitz culture with its center in Bohemia. Later the center of gravity moved to the Danube area. In Northern Germany, cultural development is very similar to the southern Scandinavian. In the younger Bronze Age, the fire burial custom spread from Hungary. In addition, new ceramic forms and bronze objects, which are characteristic of the earmarked cultures, gained access. In the discovery material good contact with Italy and Greece is tracked.

The transition to the Iron Age

The transition to the Iron Age has not happened in Germany at the same time everywhere. In the southern part of the country, the Celtic Hallstatt culture represents this transition, but in the north the Bronze Age continued for a while. Only in the younger Hallstatt era did the transition to the Iron Age take place.

In the archaeological material, a division into various cultural areas is traced in the north, which may correspond to the sites of different Germanic tribes. In the south, the Hallstatt culture went into La Tène. Contrary to our times, however, the Celtic La Tène culture was pushed both from Germanic tribes and from the Romans, which expanded from the south.

In Roman times, Germany was divided into two separate main areas. In the parts of the country occupied by the Romans, a provincial Roman culture prevailed, while independent Germanic tribes lived east of the Rhine. However, these were relatively strongly influenced by the Romans, and in the 1st century AD. the Roman impulses were largely conveyed by the Markomans.

Migration period

The migration period on the Continent has been marked by tribes on migration. In the archaeological material it is clearly seen that the Germanic objects disappear in the area east of the Elbe and are replaced by Slavic types of objects. From the time of the migration, in the southern and western areas there is a rich archaeological material from many burial fields. This disappears at the transition to Christianity in the 600-700s.

 

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