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Kuwait

Yearbook 2007

Kuwait. According to CountryAAH, the government resigned on March 4, of all judges to avoid a distrust vote against one of the ministers, but the emir Sabah al-Ahmad al-Jabir as-Sabah by decree appointed a new government with the same prime minister, Nasser Mohammed al-Ahmad al-Sabah. In the new government there were two women, Minister of Health Masuma al-Mubarak and Minister of Education Nouriya Subeeh Barrak al-Subeeh. al-Mubarak resigned in August after criticizing her way of managing a fire at al-Jahra Hospital in Kuwait City where two people were killed. She was when she assumed Kuwait's first female minister in 2005.

2007 Kuwait

In May, Kuwait left its fixed exchange rate against the US dollar and replaced it with a currency basket likely to be dominated by the dollar. The declining dollar was behind the decision. Kuwait had introduced a fixed exchange rate in 2003.

In November, the human rights organization Human Rights Watch criticized Kuwait and several other countries for their treatment of female migrant workers.

Independence

By independence on June 19, 1961, Kuwait was in many ways a developed country, after investing heavily in infrastructure, education system and health care. Among other things, in order to strengthen nation-building, a constitution was introduced and elections at a national assembly were first held in 1963. Prior to this, a legislative assembly was elected in December 1961, with the task of drafting the constitution. This limited the power of the emir and the royal family, but did not imply a parliamentary, democratic regime. Just as fully, it is more democratic form of government than in the other monarchies of the Gulf of Persia. The National Assembly developed early to become a corrective to the royal house, which contributed to its dissolution in 1976 by the emir (until 1979), then again in 1986; both times for four years. The intervention of the emir was contrary to the Constitution,

In the mid-1980s, there were several bomb attacks by Shi'ites in protest of Kuwait's support for Iraq in the Gulf War with Iran, and an attempted coup against the Emir in 1986 was decisive for dissolving the National Assembly

By independence, Kuwait had not yet developed a military defense, and when the protection agreement with Britain was terminated prior to independence, Kuwait was vulnerable. In particular, there were fears of Iraqi aggression, after Iraq refused to recognize Kuwait as an independent state, but still considered the country as Iraqi territory and promoted renewed claims to the country. Kuwait rejected Iraq's demands, and the emir called for military aid from Britain; British forces arrived on July 1, 1961. In September, they were replaced by an Arab League force that Kuwait had joined. After the Baath party came to power in Iraq, recognized the country's sovereignty of Kuwait in 1963; Kuwait's counterpart was a significant financial aid to Iraq. The military agreement between Kuwait and the United Kingdom expired in 1971, and the British withdrew their last troops from the Gulf of Persia that year.

Despite the recognition, the conflicting relationship with Iraq continued. Iraq did not consider the Iraqi-Kuwaiti border as final, and viewed Kuwait as a lost province. In 1973, for a short time, Iraq occupied the Kuwaiti area of ​​Samtah, causing a minor military clash. Iraq also claimed the Kuwaiti islands of Bubiyan and Warbah. The relationship with Iraq meant that Kuwait spent significant funds on developing a national defense and cultivating a close relationship with Britain and eventually the United States.

With the Iran revolution in 1979, the new regime there was considered an even bigger threat than Iraq. While Kuwait feared Iraq's intentions, the country supported Iraq in its war against Iran - the first Gulf War (1980-88). For Kuwait, this was the least of two evils; Kuwait regarded the Shiite priestly regime that came to power in Iran as a greater threat than the Sunni-dominated secular Baath regime in Iraq; Kuwait has a significant Shiite minority, with contacts to Iran. Both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia provided extensive financial support for Iraq's war; Kuwaiti aid is estimated at $ 13 billion. Kuwait also tried to mediate in the war, but was met with distrust from Iran. During the war, Kuwaiti ships and oil installations were attacked by Iran, which tried to pressure Kuwait to give up its support for Iraq. Kuwait considered joining the United Arab Emirates to strengthen its security, but remained outside. In contrast, Kuwait pushing for the establishment of the Regional Cooperation Council Gulf Cooperation Council (Gulf Cooperation Council, GCC) in 1981, which also included military cooperation.

Despite support for Iraq in the war against Iran, Iraq-Kuwait relations again deteriorated after 1988, and Iraqis maintained the demand on the two Kuwaiti islands. During the war, Iraq accumulated extensive debt, including to Kuwait, and the country needed capital both for repayment and reconstruction. Debt to Kuwait was around $ 30 billion, which Iraq demanded to be forgiven. At the same time, Iraq accused Kuwait of acquiring oil from sources on the Iraqi side of the border. Iraq also demanded that Kuwait compensate for its lost oil revenues during the war, attributed to lower prices due to Kuwait's overproduction. At the same time, with this growing political pressure, Iraq built up a significant force presence along the border with Kuwait.

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