Nigeria. The first months of the year were completely
dominated by the preparations for the general elections to
be held in April. A fierce and aggressive atmosphere
characterized the country. According to
CountryAAH, Vice President Atiku Abubakar,
who supported the ruling party in 2006 by criticizing
President Olusegun Obasanjo and then switching parties, was
disqualified by the electoral commission from running for
president in the election because of corruption suspicions.
Only a few days before the election, the Supreme Court
granted him permission to stand.
In the first round, governor and state elections were
held, characterized by cheating, threats and violence. About
fifty people were killed. The presidential and parliamentary
elections a week later also took place in chaotic and
violent conditions. Another number of people were killed,
ballot boxes were stolen or stuffed with ballots for the
party's candidates, opposition supporters were prevented
from voting. The EU observer group judged the elections as
completely undemocratic and a large number of individual
results appeals were filed. In many constituencies, the
election has to be redone, and in the fall, courts annulled
five governor elections.
In the presidential election, Umaru defeated Yar'Adua, a
Muslim from the northern Nigeria and up to the election governor
of the state of Katsina. He was a candidate for the People's
Democratic Party (PDP) and received almost 70 percent of the
vote. In Parliament, the PDP gained more than two-thirds
majority in both chambers.
The election of Yar'Adua was also appealed, but a court
decision was not expected until early 2008.
Yar'Adua had as one of its main promises to make peace in
the oil-rich Niger Delta, where militia groups for a large
part of the year carried out attacks on oil facilities and
kidnapped a large number of employees, most of whom were
released after a short time. The dominant armed movement
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta (MEND)
observed a four-month ceasefire following Yar'Adua's entry,
but canceled it in September on the grounds that contacts
with the government did not produce results. MEND requires
the oil-producing states to receive a larger share of the
The new president made several statements that he wanted
to be free to the representative and stopped in August a
previously decided project to build 774 new health centers
around the country, despite the equivalent of about SEK 1
billion already invested. The president claimed that the
financing was done illegally. Yar'Adua also ordered a total
restructuring of the state oil company NNPC in an attempt to
cope with the notorious corruption in the oil industry.
1984 New military coup
On January 1, 84, Muhamad Buhari conducted the 4th state
coup in the country's short history as an independent state.
One of the central charges against the Shagari government
was the corruption in the oil extraction that provided the
country with 95% of its currency income. Arrests were made
at all levels and all civilian governors were replaced by
military personnel. But the crisis continued. The price of
rice quadrupled during the year. The repression did not
simply affect the country's own inhabitants. 600,000
"illegal" foreigners were deported. Meanwhile, foreign debt
reached $ 15 billion. The continuing crisis triggered a new
coup. On August 26, 85, General Ibrahim Babangida was
appointed new president.
In December 87 elections were held for the parliaments of
the states. There were 15,000 candidates who were not
affiliated with any official party. The military had already
set up a National Electoral Commission (NEC) to secure "free
and clean" elections, but failure to prepare triggered
violence, confusion and subsequent accusations, so the
election ended up being canceled.
On December 7, 89, the military government declared that
the presidential and parliamentary elections scheduled for
the end of the month were postponed for one year. Six months
later, President Babangida lifted the ban on political
activity in preparation for the transition from military to
civilian rule in 1992.
In May 90, Babangida visited the United Kingdom, securing
$ 100 million in aid to the country deeply integrated into
the capitalist world market. The majority of trade is with
the United States, the United Kingdom and France, although
Nigeria has sought to create a kind of equilibrium in its
international relations. The country is heavily dependent on
the development of world oil prices. This contributed to the
country's per capita income falling in 1990. At the same
time, foreign debt reached $ 30 billion. Interest and
repayments on this huge debt force the country into constant
negotiations with its international creditors.