North America - Wildlife
To the north, in Canada and Alaska, there are many
circumpolar species that are also known from Europe and
Siberia, such as polar bears, brown bears, wolves, wolves,
elk, and reindeer and red deer, which in North America are
called respectively. caribou and wapiti.
Further south, the North American fauna is reminiscent of
the European and temperate Asian faunas: although they are
often different species, they are closely related. This
similarity is the reason why all these northern areas are
considered to be the same animal geographic region, the
Holarctic region (see also the Nearctic region).
However, North America also houses species that have
immigrated from South America via the Panama Sea, and that
do not have close relatives in Europe and Asia, such as punk
caves and reptiles. The puma is found all the way from
southwestern Canada to southernmost South America.
Mankind has had a profound effect on North American
wildlife. The decline of the bison is well known and many
other species are also crowded. Among the birds, several are
extinct, for example labrador duck (1875), migratory bird
(1914) and caroline parakeet (1914). On the other hand, a
large number of species have been imported from Europe on
purpose or by accident, and they are now conspicuous
features of the fauna. This applies, for example, to the
starfish and numerous species of invertebrates.
Developed America is made up of the USA and Canada, both
of which correspond to 37% of the population of the American
continent, are 300 million American inhabitants and 31
The territory of the two countries is among the largest
in extension, in second and fourth place, respectively. Due
to the territorial dimensions there is a great diversity of
climate, vegetation and relief.
The physical characteristics of developed America include
vegetation such as tundra with a cold climate, temperate
forest, steppe and prairie with a semi-arid climate, desert
vegetation with a desert climate, savanna with a subtropical
climate, high mountain vegetation with a cold climate and
absence of vegetation with polar climate.
The colonization and formation of developed America (USA
and Canada) occurred with the arrival of Europeans who had
the purpose of creating a settlement colony, which began in
the 17th century, Europeans were mainly English, French and
Spanish, forming Anglo-American Saxon.
The Central America is an isthmus which
unites South America and North America. With approximately
742,266 km², some maps represent it as an integral part of
North America, not considering it as a continent or
subcontinent (assuming that America - North, South and
Central - is just a continent).
As an American subcontinent, Central America borders on
the west with the Pacific Ocean, on the east with the
Atlantic Ocean, on the north with North America on the
border of Guatemala with Mexico, and on the south with South
America on the border between Panama and Colombia.
The argument of those who regard Central America as a
separate continent from North America is that it is located
on a tectonic plate different from the North American plate,
the Caribbean plate.
Economically, Central America does not stand out much,
with agriculture as the base of its economy. Other
activities include the extraction of hardwoods and hunting.
In the territory where Guatemala is today, the Mayan
civilization emerged, which by 200 AD had already developed
hieroglyphic writing, a highly sophisticated calendar and
astronomy, in addition to the construction of pyramids. The
Mayan civilization at its height reached two million
inhabitants and was very important in the cultural formation
of the Central American countries.
In 1824, the “ United States of Central America
” or “ Provinces Unidas del Centro América ” was
created with Guatemala City as its capital. However, the
union between Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua
and Costa Rica broke up in 1840 due to the countless
financial and administrative difficulties encountered by the
bloc. Some later attempts were made in an attempt to bring
the Central American countries together, but all failed.
Central American countries
Thus, Central America today consists of 7 countries and
countless islands, some of which belong to countries on
other continents. According to
Abbreviationfinder, the countries are: Guatemala, Belize,
Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In
the latter is the Panama Canal, an extensive 82 km
artificial canal built in 1880.
The Caribbean (island region of Central America) consists
of 13 independent countries and 11 more territories: Antigua
and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Granada,
Haiti, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts
and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and
Tobago (countries), Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Aruba,
Guadeloupe, Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, US
Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Martinique, Monte
Serra and Puerto Rico (territories).
The climate in the Central American region is hot
tropical with a wet season in summer and dry in winter, with
tropical storms reaching the region. The vegetation
comprises dense forests that have already been deforested by
almost 50% due to the exploitation of hardwood.