British Empire, formerly the name for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and its colonial empire. After the collapse of the colonial empire, that emerged as a loose association Commonwealth of Nations.
Britanni | en, Latin Britannia, old name for England and Scotland, probably of Celtic origin. On the prehistory and early history of Britain, the British Isles.
Roman times: Caesar drew in 55 and 54 BC. To Britain. The permanent occupation of the country did not begin until Claudius AD 43. Britain had been a Roman province (Britannia maior) since 43: Camulodunum (Colchester) became a legion camp, Londinium (London) became a naval and customs post. After a rising of the British under the Princess Boudicca by Suetonius Paullinus had been suppressed, Gnaeus Iulius Agricola extended the Roman rule to the Firth of Clyde and Firth of Forth from 78-84.
Heavy fighting in Scotland forced Hadrian 122 to draw a border wall (Limes) on the rear line Newcastle – Carlisle, the line of the wall and forts of which have been partially preserved (Hadrian’s Wall). Under Antoninus Pius the line of Agricola was reached again and was fortified in 142 with an earth wall (Antoninuswall). The Caledonians destroyed these successes, however, until Septimius Severus 208-211 reinforced the threatened Hadrian’s Wall and advanced to the northern tip of Britain; his son Caracalla gave up conquered Scotland again.
Britain flourished in the 3rd century; Romanization made rapid progress. In addition to the cities of Camulodunum (Colchester), Londinium (London), Eburacum (York), Glevum (Gloucester), Lindum colonia (Lincoln), Aquae Sulis (Bath), Verulamium (near Saint Albans) are to be highlighted, in addition to which numerous stately manors (Villas) emerged. Since Diocletian the administration was divided into Britannia prima, Britannia secunda, Maxima Caesariensis, Flavia Caesariensis. In the 4th century the incursions of northern British Picts, Irish Skots and the Saxons increased, but they were defeated under Valentinian I in 368-370, so that a northern province of Valentia could be established. Honorius, under whose government several anti-emperors rose up in Britain, withdrew the Roman troops in 407 against the will of the population, so that the individual cities had to take care of their own defense. London lasted around 450 when the Anglo-Saxons became masters of Britain.
The main tribes of the Celtic British (Britanni or Britones) were the Ikenians (Latin Iceni; Norfolk), Cantier (Cantii; Kent, Canterbury), Trinobanten (Trinovantes; Essex, Camulodunum / Colchester), Katuvellauner (Catuvellauni; Verulamium / Saint Albans), Dumnonen (Dumnonii; Cornwall), Silurians (Silures; Wales), Brigantes (Brigantes; Eburacum / York), Caledonians (Caledonii; Scottish highlands). They did not form a political unit; There was a relationship of allegiance between the tribal princes, the nobility and the people. The priesthood of the druids played a major role in the cult. Christianity, which found its way into Britain as early as the 2nd century, preserved many ancient cultural assets that were lost on the mainland during the Great Migration.
Commonwealth of Nations
Commonwealth of Nations [ k ɔ mənwelθ əv ne ɪ ʃ nz; engl., = community of peoples ], association of independent states, which partly recognize the formal sovereignty of the British crown, partly through tradition and economic ties belong to the association. The Commonwealth of Nations emerged from the British Empire , which was formed around the 17th century through the acquisition of colonies. Little by little, individual areas were granted self-government: Dominions emerged. The Westminster Statute of 1931 transformed the Empire into the Commonwealth; the term Dominion (= territory) was no longer felt to be up-to-date after 1945 and was replaced by “Member of the Commonwealth”.
British Isles, archipelago in northwestern Europe, includes the main islands of Great Britain and Ireland, the Orkney and Shetland Islands, the Hebrides as well as Wight, Man and other smaller islands, together over 315,000 km 2 with 64.3 million residents.
New Towns [ nju ː ta ʊ nz], New cities, state-planned new towns in Great Britain and Northern Ireland, where laws (New Town Act) of 1946, 1965 and 1968 are based. Between 1946 and 1973, 31 new towns were founded or older towns were designated for further expansion into new towns. In terms of urban planning, the early New Towns followed the garden cities that were created on a private basis from 1903 onwards. The planned population, which was initially around 30,000–120,000, was later increased to 70,000–450,000, and after 1976 it was significantly reduced due to financial difficulties. Until the final expansion, the New Towns were administered by the state; they are administratively and economically independent. With the establishment of the New Towns v. a. an improvement in the regional settlement and economic structure can be achieved.
|Welwyn Garden City|
|Craigavon (near Belfast)|
As roughly comparable types of settlement, z. E.g. in Germany Eisenhüttenstadt, Espelkamp and Wolfsburg, in the Netherlands Lelystad, in France Lille-Est, L’Isle d’Abeau (near Lyon), Le Vaudreuil (near Rouen) as well as several Villes nouvelles in the Paris area, in Australia Canberra, in Brazil Brasília, in India Chandigarh.