Flora and fauna
Due to the climatic conditions and intensive agricultural use, the natural vegetation is very limited. The desert is almost completely devoid of vegetation. Tamarisks, acacias, thorn bushes and hard grasses grow here and there. On the banks of the Nile, the vegetation is a little higher. Here you can find Nile acacias, date palms, sycamore figs and carob trees as well as introduced cassuarines. In the Nile Delta you can find lotus plums, bamboo cane and reeds. The papyrus bush cultivated in the time of the pharaohs is rarely found today.
The fauna of Egypt is rich in water birds, especially herons, cranes and Egyptian geese. European migratory birds also join in during the winter months. Kites, lammergeiers and hawks are also native to Egypt.
The larger mammals in Egypt include camels, donkeys, sheep, goats, jackals, hyenas, fenneks, wild cats, and ibexes. In the desert regions you will mainly find hares, jerboa, several types of lizards and scorpions.
Nowadays you can still find a few crocodiles on Lake Nasser.
Rivers of Africa
The Nile is the longest river in Africa. It is often given as a length of 6,671 km. According to recent satellite-based measurements, it has a length of 6,852 km. That would make it the longest river on earth.
The Nile has two headwaters. They are known as the Blue Nile and the White Nile. In Sudan, both rivers unite to form the Nile. The White Nile is used for the length of the Nile.
The Blue Nile has its source in the highlands of Abyssinia. It is the source river with more water. But it is significantly shorter than the White Nile.
The White Nile arises from the headwaters of the largest lake tributary, the Kagera. The Kagera rises from the hill countries of Rwanda and Tanzania.
Under natural conditions, the Nile would have a discharge of around 1,250 m³ / s at the mouth. However, due to the high water withdrawal, only around 140 m³ / s reach the Mediterranean. Overall, the Nile carries relatively little water. It is sometimes clearly surpassed by the smaller rivers. The Congo has an average discharge of around 39,000 m³ / s. For more information about the continent of Africa, please check historyaah.com.