Ethiopia 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Ethiopia. After twelve years of trial, former dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam was sentenced in January in his absence to life imprisonment. Along with eleven of his closest advisers, he was charged with 211 counts of genocide, murder, illegal imprisonment and illegal possession of property. According to CountryAAH, Addis Ababa is the capital city of Ethiopia. A total of 73 representatives of the previous regime have been charged with serious abuse, but 14 had died before the judges fell and 25 had been investigated in their absence. The unrest in the 2005 parliamentary elections also had its legal ramifications. Over 100 oppositionists, including about twenty journalists, were facing trial for treason, rioting and attempted genocide in connection with protests against alleged electoral fraud. The trials ended with 30 life…
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Eswatini 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Swaziland. During the year, the conflict between the opposition and the king continued in Africa's only absolute monarchy. In April, 16 members of the banned opposition movement PUDEMO (People's United Democratic Movement) were arrested in a protest action demanding democratization. In the same month, it became known that King Mswati III married his 13th wife, who was thus endowed with luxury in the form of palaces and cars. At the same time, the king planned his own birthday party for the equivalent of SEK 14 million. Mswati's extravagant lifestyle has caused growing outrage in a country where about 40 percent of adults are HIV-infected, 70 percent of the population lives on less than a dollar a day and a famine is emerging. According to CountryAAH, Mbabane is the…
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Eritrea 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Eritrea. In April, the government decided to ban female genital mutilation. The penalty for breaking the ban will be fines and imprisonment. According to CountryAAH, Asmara is the capital city of Eritrea. More than 90 percent of women in Eritrea are estimated to have had parts of the genitals cut away. In recent years, however, more and more parents have voluntarily chosen to spare their daughters. In a UN report in July, Eritrea was accused of delivering weapons to the Islamic militia in Somalia, including Air Defense. The government of Eritrea rejected the charges. The country's relations with the outside world are generally strained, not least because of reports of human rights violations. Education Minister Osman Saleh was appointed Foreign Minister in April with the task of strengthening…
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Equatorial Guinea 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Equatorial Guinea. With the help of new production fields, Equatorial Guinea expected to increase oil production in 2007 from approximately 395,000 barrels per day to 570,000. China, which is very actively looking for raw materials in Africa, repaid a debt of US $ 75 million. China often offers low-cost loans, cheap industrial goods and large construction projects to enter the African markets, which have so far been dominated by former colonial powers and the United States. According to CountryAAH, Malabo is the capital city of Equatorial Guinea. Equatorial Guinea also started negotiations on oil deliveries to Zimbabwe during the year, plagued by severe fuel shortages. The message was given shortly after the government of Zimbabwe decided to extradite British mercenary Simon Mann, who is convicted in Equatorial Guinea…
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Egypt 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Egypt. The contradictions between the government and various opposition forces intensified during the year. On March 19, Parliament voted in favor of 34 constitutional increments which the opposition believed were anti-democratic. a ban on the formation of religiously based parties and a restriction on the judiciary's control of elections and referendums. In a referendum on constitutional supplements on March 26, according to the Minister of Justice, 76 percent of voters voted yes. Voting was reported to be 27 percent, but several human rights organizations claimed that only 5 percent of voters had voted and that several other inaccuracies were committed in connection with the vote. In the election to the advisory assembly Majlis Ash-Shura in June, the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) took home 84 of the 88…
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Djibouti 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Djibouti. According to CountryAAH, Djibouti is the capital city of Djibouti. Djibouti was hoping for an economic boom thanks to the large infrastructure project that is intended to make the port of Doraleh a mile from the capital Djibouti to Africa's largest container terminal. A government company from the United Arab Emirates, Dubai World, invested through a subsidiary equivalent to SEK 2 billion on the project. The Djibouti state also made money. At the end of 2008, the port, with five times greater capacity than before, was estimated to be ready to receive the very largest container vessels crossing the Suez Canal. A five-star luxury hotel had also opened to lure elaborate corporate executives from the Arab world with lobster and helicopter safaris - while most of Djibouti's…
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Democratic Republic of the Congo 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Democratic Republic of the Congo. Despite general elections in 2006, Congo remained worried. Struggles erupted in Kinshasa in March when two losing presidential candidates' private bodyguards refused to be disarmed. Nearly 600 people were killed, according to UN estimates, in fighting between army troops loyal to President Joseph Kabila and, above all, former Vice President Jean-Pierre Bemba's forces. Bemba sought protection at the Embassy of South Africa, from where he was later escorted out of the country. He went with his family to Portugal, where he remained. When he did not take his seat in the Senate within the prescribed time, the prosecutor requested that the legal immunity of Bemba accused of treason be revoked. Riots erupted in February in the Bas-Congo province during protests that the opposition-dominated…
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Comoros 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Comoros. Violence erupted on the island of Nzwani (Anjouan) ahead of the local presidential elections in June. The incumbent President Mohamed Bacar refused to step down, even though his term in office had expired. Nzwani's paramilitary police force attacked the Union troops sent to the island to ensure that the elections could be conducted. At least two soldiers were killed. Bacar, described by some analysts as a separatist leader, eventually agreed to leave the presidential post in order to stand for re-election. But when Union President Ahmed Abdallah Sambi decided to postpone the election on Nzwani, Bacar ignored it. He still held the election June 10, claiming he won and installed as president. The election was annulled by the Comorian Constitutional Court. On the other two major islands,…
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Chad 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Chad. The year began with an emergency permit in large parts of Chad. It had been introduced at the end of 2006 due to the fierce fighting between the government army and rebel forces, mainly in eastern Chad at the border with the Sudanese war-torn Darfur and the troubled Central African Republic. The crisis in the east continued during the year. Hundreds of thousands of refugees from Darfur and the Central African Republic, but also internal refugees, lived there in miserable conditions and were subjected to attacks by rebel groups moving across borders. Chad and Sudan accused each other of supporting government-hostile rebels on both sides of the border. According to CountryAAH, N’Djamena is the capital city of Chad. Chad's Prime Minister Pascal Yoadimnadji passed away in February…
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Central African Republic 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Central African Republic. According to CountryAAH, Bangui is the capital city of Central African Republic. Stepping steps were taken during the year towards creating peace in the country's north-eastern areas, which have long been plagued by violence from both rebel forces and the government army. In February, the government signed a peace agreement with a rebel movement and in April made peace with another organization, but no real stability was achieved. The UN Security Council approved in September that the EU sends a military force of 3,000 men to the Central African Republic and neighboring Chad, primarily to try to block the border with the Darfur region in Sudan, from where the violence has spread. 300 UN troops are to complement the EU force. Sweden announced a grant…
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Cameroon 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Cameroon. A campaign against corruption that started in 2006 after pressure from donors began to produce results. After three major trials, a number of former senior officials, most related to the ruling party RDPC, were sentenced to imprisonment for up to 50 years for extensive misappropriation of state funds. However, the corruption cases hardly affected the parliamentary elections in July, which resulted in a grand victory for the RDPC (Cameroonian People's Democratic Movement). The party retained a large majority, with 140 of Parliament's 180 seats; a slight decline since the last election. However, the Supreme Court received over 100 protests against cheating and decided to annul the result in 17 constituencies where serious cheating had been established. According to CountryAAH, Yaounde is the capital city of Cameroon. 21…
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Cabo Verde 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Cape Verde. According to CountryAAH, Praia is the capital city of Cape Verde. Cape Verde has had a strong economic development for a number of years and growth for 2007 was estimated at about 7 percent. The country stands on the threshold of stepping out of the "least developed countries" category, which means that Cabo Verde can no longer rely on aid and particularly favorable trading conditions. The economy is largely based on the fast-growing tourism that attracts large investments, but the government strives for other industries such as agriculture, fishing, crafts and small industries to be able to develop with the help of tourism. Cape Verde weather in March, April and May According to Bridgat.com, daily temperatures averaging 25 to 27 ° C can be expected over…
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Burundi 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Burundi. A harsh political climate caused concern in the area that the system of power sharing between the hutu and Tutsi people groups, which came into force in 2005, would fall apart. According to CountryAAH, Gitega is the capital city of Burundi. The tutsidominated former ruling party UPRONA accused the ruling CNDD-FDD, formerly a Hutu extremist militia, of consistently favoring Hutus in the post of army and police posts. A ceasefire agreement between the government and the last hutumilis FNL, which was concluded in the autumn of 2006, did not lead to any permanent peace agreement. Negotiations ended and the FNL delegation disappeared from the capital, after which bloody fighting broke out between rival factions of the FNL during the fall. In January, the Supreme Court acquitted former…
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Burkina Faso 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Burkina Faso. The ruling party, the Congress for Democracy and Progress (CDP), received a majority of votes in the May 6 parliamentary elections. The CDP took home 73 of the 111 seats in the National Assembly, a sharp increase compared to the 2002 election when the party received 57 seats. The turnout was 56 percent. As many as 47 parties lined up, of which 13 got seats in parliament. According to CountryAAH, Ouagadougou is the capital city of Burkina Faso. Burkina Faso, like a number of other West African countries, suffered severe flooding in August - October. At least 51 people died and 76 were injured. In total, more than 90,000 people were affected by the floods, according to government estimates. Of these, 28,000 had become homeless. In…
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Botswana 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Botswana. At the beginning of the year, Botswana border control against Zimbabwe sharpened the fear of a stream of illegal immigrants, after a large number of opposition groups were arrested in neighboring countries following protests against the Mugabe regime. Relations between Botswana and Zimbabwe have deteriorated since the Botswana government began building an electrified fence along the border. Officially, the 50-mile-long fence will prevent the spread of foot-and-mouth disease, but Zimbabwe sees it as a way to stop them from fleeing to Botswana. Over 56,000 Zimbabweans who crossed the border were deported from Botswana in 2006. According to CountryAAH, Gaborone is the capital city of Botswana. Botswana and Mauritius were the only African countries during the year on Transparency International's top 50 list of the world's least corrupt…
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Benin 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Benin. According to CountryAAH, Porto-Novo is the capital city of Benin. The Kauri forces of an emerging Benin, an alliance of about twenty parties supporting the new President Boni Yayi, received 35 of Parliament's 83 seats in the March 31 election. A smaller alliance around former President Nicéphore Soglo was given 20 seats. The former military dictatorship and the one-party Marxist state of Benin are often cited as a democratic example in Africa, but the arrangements surrounding the elections have often been flawed. So this time too, when the election has to be postponed for a week due to poor preparation. Shortly before the election, President Boni was subjected to a murder attempt when a vehicle column he was traveling in was shot. Several members of the party…
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Angola 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Angola. Large oil and diamond deposits and high world market prices helped Angola maintain the strong economic growth rate of recent years. The International Monetary Fund (IMF) estimated Angola's growth to 23 percent in 2007, but at the same time criticized the lack of transparency in the operations of state oil and diamond companies. Very large sums are believed to disappear in the pockets of the governing body. The government announced that the country no longer needs foreign financial assistance and canceled negotiations with the IMF. According to CountryAAH, Luanda is the capital city of Angola. The value of this year's oil production was estimated at over US $ 30 billion; more than the OECD's total assistance to Africa in 2006. Most of Angola's debt of USD 2.3…
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Algeria 2007

Africa
Yearbook 2007 Algeria. In January, the armed Islamist group GSPC (Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat) changed its name to al-Qaeda's organization in the Islamic Maghreb (al-Qaeda in Maghreb). Under its new identity, the group stepped up its armed struggle against the government, its troops and against employees at foreign companies. Several actions were typically coordinated in al-Qaeda. For example, on April 11, 33 people in three simultaneous suicide attacks in the capital. At the same time, similar attacks occurred in Morocco and Tunisia. The violence continued during the fall; Al Qaeda, for example, took assumes responsibility for two assaults - September 6 in Batna and September 8 in the port of Dellys - which required a total of at least 50 lives. GSPC's founder Hassan Hattab, who…
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Africa Geography

Africa Geography

Africa
Climate As a whole, Africa is the warmest continent. Despite Africa having a symmetrical position around the equator (between 35 degrees north and 35 degrees south), there are major differences in the climate zones. Farther north and south there are zones of Mediterranean climate. Africa's hottest regions are in southern Sahara with maximum temperatures in many places of more than 50 degrees and annual average temperatures of 28 degrees. Due to radiation in clear desert air, there are large variations in day and night temperatures. South of the equator, the climate zones are more complicated due to topographic conditions and greater influence from the sea. In central areas there is savanna climate. Desert climate prevails in a narrow strip along the west coast of Namibia, while large stretches of east…
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