Egypt. The contradictions between the government and various opposition forces intensified during the year. On March 19, Parliament voted in favor of 34 constitutional increments which the opposition believed were anti-democratic. a ban on the formation of religiously based parties and a restriction on the judiciary’s control of elections and referendums. In a referendum on constitutional supplements on March 26, according to the Minister of Justice, 76 percent of voters voted yes. Voting was reported to be 27 percent, but several human rights organizations claimed that only 5 percent of voters had voted and that several other inaccuracies were committed in connection with the vote. In the election to the advisory assembly Majlis Ash-Shura in June, the ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) took home 84 of the 88 seats that were at stake. A further 44 seats were added directly by President Hosni Mubarak. The turnout here was reported to be 23 percent. The Muslim Brotherhood, the country’s largest opposition movement, claimed that police had surrounded polling stations to deter voters in areas where the Brotherhood support was strong. About 800 members of the Muslim Brotherhood had also been arrested in the months before the election. At the NDP Congress on November 3, 79-year-old Mubarak was unanimously re-elected as party leader for another five years. It was the first time a party leader’s vote was held in the party since Mubarak succeeded the assassinated President Anwar Sadat in 1981.
- According to abbreviationfinder: EG is the 2-letter acronym for the country of Egypt.
According to CountryAAH, Cairo is the capital city of Egypt. The government was shaken during the year by a series of strikes. 20,000 textile workers in the city of al-Mahalla al-Kubra in the Nile Delta had laid down their work in December 2006, thereby pushing for promises of a one-time bonus and wage increases of 7 percent per year. Concrete workers, locomotives, postal workers and others followed in the textile workers’ tracks during the winter and spring. The strikes were carried out without the support of the government-dominated trade union federation. The strikers demanded wage increases but also, in some cases, an independent trade union and a halt to an ongoing privatization wave. In September, al-Mahalla al-Kubra’s textile workers took control of their workplace after five of their representatives had been arrested and the promised bonus had not been paid.
During the year, the government took a hard look at the country’s media. 22-year-old blogger Abdelkarim Nabil Suleiman was sentenced in February to four years in prison for insulting Islam and Mubarak. In the fall, seven journalists were sentenced to various sentences in prison for insulting the president or, in one case, misquoting a minister.
During the year, Egypt put a lot of effort into trying to mediate between Palestinians and Israelis.
Boy Tutankhamun’s face was shown to the public for the first time in November. Archaeologists moved the 3,000-year-old mummy from his sarcophagus to a climate-controlled coffin in the tomb of the Kings Valley in Luxor.
Egypt weather in March, April and May
Average daily temperatures between 21 ° C and 39 ° C can be expected over the next three months. It gets warmest in May in Luxor, noticeably cooler in March in Alexandria. The temperatures in Cairo are between 23 and 32 ° C, in Alexandria between 21 and 27 ° C and in Luxor between 27 and 39 ° C.
Do you want to go on a beach holiday? The water temperatures are in March, April and May 16-20 ° C.
In March it rains on 0 (Cairo) to 3 days (Alexandria), in April on 0 (Cairo) to 1 days (Alexandria) and in May on about 0 days, depending on the region.
In the period from March to May, the sun shines on average between 9 and 11 hours a day. The sunniest weather is in Alexandria in May, but with less sun you will have to get by in Cairo in March.
November 2012. Constitutional crisis
Likewise, it came to a crucial rift between Morsi and the Liberal opposition. On November 22, 2012, Morsi issued a decree that was basically intended to protect the Constitutional Assembly from abuse by the Mubarak faith judiciary. The declaration exempted Morsi’s actions from being overturned by (the Mubarak faith) courts; it allowed Morsi to take every step to defend the “revolution”; it extended the mandate of the Constitutional Assembly by 2 months and at the same time ordered the resumption of the cases for the person who had been acquitted of Mubarak’s murder of protesters of the time. At the same time, the decree stated that it was valid only until a new constitution was adopted. In other words, it was time-limited. But the Liberal and secular members of the Assembly responded by emigrating and criticizing Morsi for trying to impose Islamic rule. Morsi’s own supporters became, while the opponents organized demonstrations and again took the Tahrir Square. The protesters demanded that the declaration be withdrawn and the assembly dissolved. International human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch also condemned the declaration. The Mubarak faith Supreme Court declared the declaration invalid. Morsi once again stated that the declaration was only temporary and that he sought dialogue with the opposition, but the demonstrations continued. After several days of negotiations, Morsi and the opposition agreed that the president’s actions should be tried in the courts,
On December 1, the Assembly handed over the draft new constitution to Morsi, announcing that a referendum on the new constitution would be carried out on December 15. At the same time, protests against the president continued.
The referendum on December 15 passed the new constitution with 64% of the vote, but the turnout was only 32.9%.
July 2013. Military coup
In April 2013, a number of opposition movements formed Tamarod, whose only claim was Morsi’s resignation as president. By the end of June, the movement raised 22 million signatures to support this.
President Morsi attended a demonstration convened by the Salafists on June 15, calling for support from the rebels and “holy war” against Bashar al-Assad in Syria. Morsi stated that he had expelled the Syrian ambassador to Egypt and closed the country’s embassy. At the same time, he called for international intervention in the form of the creation of a no-fly zone. Morsi’s participation in the Salafist demonstration became crucial to SCAF’s relationship with the president and contributed decisively to their position on the Morsi opponents’ side.
On the anniversary of the election of Morsi, June 30, thousands of Morsi critics gathered at Tahrir Square and in other major cities across Egypt to demand Morsi’s departure. The demonstrations grew rapidly to hundreds of thousands in the following days, and the protesters unequivocally urged the military to remove Morsi. It quickly came to violent clashes with protesters from the Muslim Brotherhood. On July 3, unknown perpetrators shot at a demonstration organized by the Brotherhood, killing 16 and wounding 200.
On July 3, the military conducted its coup, putting Morsi in house arrest. In fact, it was al-Sisi’s commander-in-chief who took power, and he made Supreme Court President Adly Mansour the head of government. At the same time, he shut down the country’s independent media – including the international ones such as al-Jazeera – and introduced censorship.
Liberal and secular forces believed in their naivety that their alliance with the 2011 military overthrow of Mubarak was still in force. But in reality, this alliance had broken down. The military decided to return to the “orderly conditions” during the Mubarak era, where the military had the decisive political and economic influence.