Indonesia. Proof of Indonesia’s transformation of a few years into one of Asia’s stronger democracies was given in February, when former guerrilla Irwandi Yusuf took office as governor of Aceh province in northern Sumatra. He was imprisoned when the huge tsunami hit Aceh in December 2004, but managed to break out when the floodwaters broke down and soaked the prison building. The natural disaster became a turning point in the decades-long conflict in Aceh and caused both the state and the guerrillas to work for reconciliation.
- According to abbreviationfinder: IN is the 2-letter acronym for the country of Indonesia.
According to CountryAAH, Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia. Former President Suharto, the epitome of Indonesia’s authoritarian past, was brought to justice in July in a civil case. It is probably the state’s last attempt to recover some of the billions of money that Suharto is suspected to have squandered during his decades in power. Attempts to claim justice through a criminal trial have been discontinued due to Suharto’s failing health.
At about the same time as the civil case was set in motion, the Jakarta Supreme Court sentenced the US magazine Time to pay $ 106 million in damages to the president for publishing an article in 1999 that Suharto would have embezzled $ 73 billion. The Times management said it would struggle to get a raise.
Together with neighboring Malaysia and Brunei, Indonesia signed an agreement to set aside a protected area of 200,000 square kilometers of rainforest on the island of Borneo. Nevertheless, the ability of state authorities to prevent logging in the area was considered to be rather limited. The environmental organization Greenpeace accused Indonesia of being the country in the world where forest cover is disappearing fastest. According to Greenpeace, Indonesia fell almost two million hectares each year between 2000 and 2005.
Indonesia weather in March, April and May
Average daily temperatures between 30 ° C and 33 ° C can be expected over the next three months. It gets warmest in May in Medan, while March is a little cooler in Manado.
Do you want to go on a beach holiday? The water temperatures are in March, April and May 27-30 ° C. This is great weather for a great time on the beach and in the water.
In March it rains depending on the region of 13 (Medan) to 16 days (Jakarta), in April at 12 (Jakarta) to 18 days (Medan) and in May to 9 (Jakarta) to 22 days (Medan).
In the period from March to May the sun shines on average between 3 and 8 hours a day. The sunniest weather is in April in Manado, with less sun you will have to get by in Manokwari in March.
1998 Suharto is sold
In mid-1997, a stock market crisis erupted in Southeast Asia. It also hit Indonesia. Inflation increased and there was a risk of hyperinflation. Up to the start of 98, the Indonesian currency – one rupiah – had lost half its value compared to 1997. The price rises especially affected the basic consumer goods and the social situation was therefore deteriorating. Between October 97 and March 98, 2 million people lost their jobs. After several months of protests in the wake of the renewal of Suharto’s mandate, in May 98 he was forced to resign from the presidential post. He was replaced by his Crown Prince and Vice President, Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie. The protests had then cost several hundred killed.
In October 98, violent student demonstrations demanded a transition to democracy and the ousting of military commander, Wiranto. The students got the capital under control and in the following clashes with anti-demonstration police, 5 students were killed. In the same month, two civilians were killed in armed clashes between separatists and police in the Aceh province in the country’s northwest, where the military is accused of carrying out a wide range of population attacks.
At Borneo, the ethnic conflicts intensified between, on the one hand, the indigenous Malay population, Dayaks and Chinese, and on the other, migrants from the rest of Indonesia. In March 1999, the clashes killed 70 people. The following month, hundreds of Muslims set fire to a Christian assembly house in Jakarta in revenge for the explosion of a mosque in Ujung Pandang – Southeast Asia’s largest.
In August 99, a UN referendum was held in East Timor during UN monitoringon the future of the province – independence or autonomy. In the weeks leading up to the polling date, terror from pro-Indonesian militias sent thousands of East Timorans fleeing into the mountains. The Indonesian military reacted passively to the abuses despite widespread international criticism, the UN had no way of getting the situation under control, and there was the final uncertainty as to whether the vote could be carried out. It became and gave 80% support for independence. It triggered a well-organized revenge from militia groups and the Indonesian military. They burned down 90% of the buildings in the country and fled the majority of the population. In September, the UN sent an Australian-led peace force into East Timor, the Indonesian forces withdrew from the country and its transition to independence could be initiated.
The October 99 presidential election was won by Abdurramán Wahid, who until then had been chairman of the Muslim organization Nahdlatul Ulama. One of Wahid’s first actions was to offer the Aceh province extensive autonomy and financial assistance if the province decided to remain within the Indonesian state. At the same time, he held a referendum on the issue until 7 months later in Aceh. A poll that was similar to the August 99 poll in East Timor. Under the autonomy plan, the province should retain 75% of the revenue generated by its revenue. It is already Indonesia’s richest in terms of natural resources. However, the news of conducting a referendum was negatively received by the military, whose leadership declared it would be the beginning of Indonesia’s dissolution as a nation.
Despite Wahid’s promise to fight the widespread corruption in the country, he was quickly caught up in financial scandals that prompted Parliament to set up an investigative commission in August 2000. The first scandal broke out in May, when the president’s personal masseur had received $ 4.1 million. dollars from the National Food Agency. The next scandal was about a donation from the Sultan of Bruneito Wahid, whom this had kept secret. The two scandals were christened in the press Buloggate and Bruneigate respectively. In both cases, the money should have been used for humanitarian programs in Aceh, where the uprising continued. Parliament continued its efforts to bring Wahid to justice, but had to relinquish this after thousands of his supporters in February 2001 walked the streets with support for him and demands for Golkar’s dissolution.