Montenegro Country Overview

It is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula, on the shores of the Adriatic Sea. It is bordered to the north by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Serbia, to the east by Serbia, Kosovo and Albania, to the south by the Adriatic Sea and to the west by Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Not a recognized country by the entire international community, because it proclaimed its independence from Serbia unilaterally on June 3 of the 2006.

The capital of Montenegro is Podgorica, the official language Montenegrin, although all the residents speak Serbo-Croatian and Albanian and Bosnian are also recognized as official; the form of government is a parliamentary republic, the currency is the euro, since it is one of the countries in which it circulates but is not integrated into the monetary system; and the time zone is CET (UTC + 1).


According to, Montenegro is a parliamentary republic with a multi-party democratic system, although its stability depends on the mission that the UN has established in the country. The head of state is the president, who has a four-year term and is elected by direct vote. Among its functions are to promulgate laws, call elections and plebiscites and propose the prime minister.

Executive power rests with the prime minister and his government. Its functions include foreign relations, proposing laws and the Administration. He must have the confidence of parliament, which is the institution that elects him on the proposal of the president. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of Montenegro, which is unicameral. It is made up of 77 members, with a term of four years, elected in direct elections. The Judicial power rests with independent judges and courts, whose highest instance is the Supreme Court.

Administrative divisions

Administratively, Montenegro is divided into 21 municipalities:

  • Andrijevica
  • Pub
  • Berane
  • Bijelo Polje
  • Budva
  • Cetinje
  • Danilovgrad
  • Herceg Novi
  • Kolasin
  • Kotor
  • Mojkovac
  • Niksic
  • Plav
  • Pluzine
  • Pljevlja
  • Podgorica
  • Rozaje
  • Savnik
  • Tivat
  • Ulcinj
  • Zabljak


Montenegro’s economy is still closely related to that of Serbia, and to the cycles of the former Yugoslavia. It is a moderately industrialized region, although with an obsolete production system. Agriculture hardly produces for the market, and in any case it is for a local market. Much of it is self-reliance. The agricultural regions par excellence are the plains of the interior of the country, and the plains of the rivers. Its main crops are corn, oats, potatoes, barley, wheat, etc. Livestock is concentrated in the many mountains, although it also has a strong family and subsistence character. It stands out in the generation of electrical energy, mining: bauxite, chromium, manganese, lead, zinc, copper, and in forest resources and textiles. Communications are slow and difficult. The war destroyed many of the infrastructure and the crisis is preventing reconstruction.

It was a tourist region in Yugoslavia times, due to its lakes and coastline, but nowadays it is an unappetizing destination, so it has not taken off as a tourist destination.

The UN sanctions on Serbia and Montenegro and the administration of the UN Mission have caused a deep crisis from which it is having a hard time exiting. It is a poor country within Europe, with a human development index of 0.822, high for the world, low for Europe. Much of the Montenegrin population is below the poverty line. Due to its position in the Adriatic Sea, close to Italy and the few controls on the border with Serbia, it became a smuggling center in which the underground economy solves many of the country’s problems. Due to its economic weakness the euro it is the currency of use in the country. Its economy is in the process of reconstruction and there are hardly any reliable data, due to the turbulent historical and political events that the country has suffered.


Montenegro has about 690,000 residents, which gives a population density of about 50 h / km². It is a modern population that ended the demographic transition during the communist period. Its demographic cycles correspond to those of Yugoslavia, and the population has suffered the wars that hit the area in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. Its population is composed mainly of Montenegrins and Serbs, but there are a minority from all the former Yugoslav republics. Montenegro has a young population by the norm in Europe. 16% of the population is under 15 years old, 70% between 15 and 65 years old, and 14% is over 65 years old. The population is decreasing at a rate of -0.8% per year, due to a negative migratory balance and a low birth rate of 11 ‰, which gives a fertility rate of 1.4 children per woman. The mortality rate is low, about 8, and the infant mortality rate is also low, as in neighboring Serbia it is about 6 ‰. Life expectancy at birth is about 74 years.

The population is distributed more or less evenly throughout the country, although there is a predominance of the urban population. The main Montenegrin cities are:

  • Podgorica, 145,192 h, Podgorica Municipality
  • Niksic, 58,712 h, Niksic Township
  • Pljevlja, 9,354 p.m., Pljevlja municipality
  • Bijelo Polje, 15,357 h, municipality of Bijelo Polje
  • Bar, 15,112 h, Bar municipality


Education in Montenegro is governed by the Montenegrin Ministry of Education and Science. Education in preschools and primary schools. Children enroll in elementary schools at the age of 6; up to 9 years. Students can continue their secondary education, which lasts four years (three years for trade schools) and ends with graduation.

Higher education ends with a first degree depending on the career after 3 to 6 years. There is a public university (The University of Montenegro and two private ones (Mediterranean University and UDG).

Montenegro Country Overview