North America – Wildlife
To the north, in Canada and Alaska, there are many circumpolar species that are also known from Europe and Siberia, such as polar bears, brown bears, wolves, wolves, elk, and reindeer and red deer, which in North America are called respectively. caribou and wapiti.
Further south, the North American fauna is reminiscent of the European and temperate Asian faunas: although they are often different species, they are closely related. This similarity is the reason why all these northern areas are considered to be the same animal geographic region, the Holarctic region (see also the Nearctic region).
However, North America also houses species that have immigrated from South America via the Panama Sea, and that do not have close relatives in Europe and Asia, such as punk caves and reptiles. The puma is found all the way from southwestern Canada to southernmost South America.
Mankind has had a profound effect on North American wildlife. The decline of the bison is well known and many other species are also crowded. Among the birds, several are extinct, for example labrador duck (1875), migratory bird (1914) and caroline parakeet (1914). On the other hand, a large number of species have been imported from Europe on purpose or by accident, and they are now conspicuous features of the fauna. This applies, for example, to the starfish and numerous species of invertebrates.
Developed America is made up of the USA and Canada, both of which correspond to 37% of the population of the American continent, are 300 million American inhabitants and 31 million Canadians.
The territory of the two countries is among the largest in extension, in second and fourth place, respectively. Due to the territorial dimensions there is a great diversity of climate, vegetation and relief.
The physical characteristics of developed America include vegetation such as tundra with a cold climate, temperate forest, steppe and prairie with a semi-arid climate, desert vegetation with a desert climate, savanna with a subtropical climate, high mountain vegetation with a cold climate and absence of vegetation with polar climate.
The colonization and formation of developed America (USA and Canada) occurred with the arrival of Europeans who had the purpose of creating a settlement colony, which began in the 17th century, Europeans were mainly English, French and Spanish, forming Anglo-American Saxon.
The Central America is an isthmus which unites South America and North America. With approximately 742,266 km², some maps represent it as an integral part of North America, not considering it as a continent or subcontinent (assuming that America – North, South and Central – is just a continent). According to Countryaah, there are 7 countries in the Central America.
|Country||Public expenditure on health as a share of GDP (per cent)||Infant mortality (per 1000 births)|
|Antigua and Barbuda||4.8 (2015)||5 (2018)|
|Bahamas||7.4 (2015)||8 (2018)|
|Barbados||7.5 (2015)||11 (2018)|
|Belize||6.2 (2015)||11 (2018)|
|Costa Rica||8.1 (2015)||8 (2018)|
|Dominica||5.4 (2015)||33 (2018)|
|Dominican Republic||6.2 (2015)||24 (2018)|
|El Salvador||6.9 (2015)||12 (2018)|
|Grenada||5.0 (2015)||14 (2018)|
|Guatemala||5.7 (2015)||22 (2018)|
|Haiti||6.9 (2015)||50 (2018)|
|Honduras||7.6 (2015)||15 (2018)|
|Jamaica||5.9 (2015)||12 (2018)|
|Canada||10.4 (2015)||4 (2018)|
|Mexico||5.9 (2015)||11 (2018)|
|Nicaragua||7.8 (2015)||16 (2018)|
|Panama||7.0 (2015)||13 (2018)|
|Saint Kitts & Nevis||5.6 (2015)||10 (2018)|
|Saint Lucia||6.0 (2015)||15 (2018)|
|St. Vincent & the Grenadines||4.2 (2015)||15 (2018)|
|Trinidad & Tobago||6.0 (2015)||16 (2018)|
|USA||16.8 (2015)||6 (2018)|
As an American subcontinent, Central America borders on the west with the Pacific Ocean, on the east with the Atlantic Ocean, on the north with North America on the border of Guatemala with Mexico, and on the south with South America on the border between Panama and Colombia.
The argument of those who regard Central America as a separate continent from North America is that it is located on a tectonic plate different from the North American plate, the Caribbean plate.
Economically, Central America does not stand out much, with agriculture as the base of its economy. Other activities include the extraction of hardwoods and hunting.
In the territory where Guatemala is today, the Mayan civilization emerged, which by 200 AD had already developed hieroglyphic writing, a highly sophisticated calendar and astronomy, in addition to the construction of pyramids. The Mayan civilization at its height reached two million inhabitants and was very important in the cultural formation of the Central American countries.
In 1824, the “ United States of Central America ” or “ Provinces Unidas del Centro América ” was created with Guatemala City as its capital. However, the union between Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica broke up in 1840 due to the countless financial and administrative difficulties encountered by the bloc. Some later attempts were made in an attempt to bring the Central American countries together, but all failed.
Central American countries
Thus, Central America today consists of 7 countries and countless islands, some of which belong to countries on other continents. According to Abbreviationfinder, the countries are: Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama. In the latter is the Panama Canal, an extensive 82 km artificial canal built in 1880.
The Caribbean (island region of Central America) consists of 13 independent countries and 11 more territories: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Dominica, Granada, Haiti, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago (countries), Anguilla, Netherlands Antilles, Aruba, Guadeloupe, Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands, US Virgin Islands, British Virgin Islands, Martinique, Monte Serra and Puerto Rico (territories).
The climate in the Central American region is hot tropical with a wet season in summer and dry in winter, with tropical storms reaching the region. The vegetation comprises dense forests that have already been deforested by almost 50% due to the exploitation of hardwood.