Geographical position: West coast of South America. According to Ezinereligion, Peru borders with Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Bolivia and Chile. From the west it is washed by the waters of the Pacific Ocean.
Capital: Lima (7.7 million people).
Official languages: Spanish, Quechua and Aymara (Puno and the border with Bolivia), as well as many Amazonian dialects.
Population: about 27.1 million people.
State structure: democratic republic.
Territory: 1.285.220 sq. km. The country is divided into 24 departments and 1 constitutional province.
Dominant religion: Catholicism.
Currency: new sol (1 US dollar is equal to 3.00 new sols (rate varies).
Time: GMT – 5 hours. Behind Moscow by 9 hours (summer), 8 hours (winter).
Highest point: mountain peak Huascaran (6768 m)
Mains voltage: 220/240 Volts, frequency 60 Hz (50 Hz in Arequipa), European-style sockets Most hotels have 5 * sockets for 110 and 220V.
Airport taxes: paid before boarding for each flight. On domestic flights 6.82 USD in Lima and about 4.00 USD in the provinces. International fee 31.00 USD. Before flying over the Nazca Lines, the Nazca Lines Conservation Fee and the Airfield Fee are also paid – from $8 to $12 depending on the airfield.
COSTA (COAST) – 13% of the territory of Peru
In Lima and throughout the south and central Pacific coast from November to March, summer is sunny and warm. The average temperature ranges from +15ºС to +29ºС. On the beaches of northern Peru (Tumbes, Piura), the Pacific Ocean warms up to + 30º C during this period – the cold Humboldt Current, which prevents the waters in the southern and central parts of the coast from warming up, is not powerful here. Winter (from April to October) in the southern and central parts of the coast is cool and wet. Light drizzle (garua) is common. The temperature does not fall below +12º C and very rarely there are small and short-term rains.
SIERRA (MOUNTAINS) – 27% of the territory of Peru
In the Andes, temperatures range from +24ºС to -3ºС. Cold snaps are possible at night. The Sierra as a whole is characterized by sharp diurnal temperature fluctuations. The rainy season is from November to April, so bring a waterproof raincoat/cape or an umbrella (which is less convenient) and warm clothes for the rainy season, early morning and night when temperatures can drop to freezing. It is usually sunny during the day, and the sun bakes and burns much stronger at a height. Be sure to bring high protection sunscreen, a hat, and mosquito and midge repellent (for the Machu Picchu excursion). During the day, wear light-colored long and short sleeve T-shirts, light trousers, sports shoes. The best time to travel to the Sierra is from May to October, during the dry season.
SELVA (JUNGLE) – 60% of the territory of Peru
In the jungle, the average temperature is +25ºС +35ºС, hot and very humid. The season of especially frequent rains is from November to April. During this period, showers lasting an hour and a half once or twice a day are possible. The rest of the day is sunny. From May to August, the temperature in the selva can suddenly drop to +8ºС +12ºС due to cold winds from the south.
Detailed and current information about the weather in Peru on the website of the Peruvian Meteorological Bureau: www.senamhi.gob.pe
US dollars are accepted for payment and less often euros (supermarkets and large stores, restaurants, hotels), but it is still better to always have the local currency with you – Peruvian salts (the current rate is 1 US dollar = 2.75 new salts). Current dollar exchange rate in Peru: www.sunat.gob.pe. In circulation there are coins in 1, 5, 10, 20 and 50 centimos, 1, 2 and 5 soles, as well as banknotes in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100 and 200 soles.
In large cities (Lima, Cusco, Arequipa, Trujillo, Chiclayo), there are ATMs on the main streets where you can withdraw money (dollars or salts) from Visa, American Express, Mastercard. Credit cards are also accepted for payment in hotels and large restaurants and shops. It is recommended to change money in banks and hotels (the least favorable exchange rate), or in exchange offices (casas de cambio), but not on the street at the money changers, where they can easily slip you a fake bill. There is a lot of counterfeit money circulating here, so you need to carefully check bills and even coins for authenticity.
Banks are open from 09:00 to 18:00 from Monday to Friday. Some banks are open on Saturdays from 09:30 to 12:30.
Do not wear expensive jewelry, watches, or other valuable items that may attract the attention of thieves. Peru as a whole is a safe country, but poor, so no one is safe from street theft or pickpockets. Always try to leave valuables, documents and large sums of money in the hotel safe before excursions or independent walks (make sure that the safe is closed). Always keep an eye on your camera and purse – hold them with your hand. Money is best carried in a trouser pocket or breast pocket. Do not wander into deserted neighborhoods or streets remote from the center and safe areas, especially after dark. In large cities on the street you will see the tourist police in special uniforms. You can always turn to them with a request for help if something happens or you get lost.
Fire department in Peru: 116. Police: 105. Tourist police (Lima): 4600921.