Spain Political Systems and Social Conditions

The path to independence for Spain began in 1808 when Napoleon invaded the country and deposed King Charles IV. This was a major turning point in Spanish history, as it sparked a rebellion by the people against their oppressors. The Peninsular War that followed saw several battles fought between the French forces and Spanish resistance fighters led by General Francisco Goya. The war lasted until 1814, when the French were finally defeated and King Ferdinand VII was restored to the throne.

Despite this victory, Ferdinand was not content to remain under French rule and continued to fight for greater autonomy from France. He signed agreements with Britain, Portugal, and other countries that allowed them to send troops into Spain in order to help him fight against Napoleon’s forces. This eventually resulted in the abdication of Napoleon in 1814 and Spain’s full independence from France. After this, Ferdinand VII worked hard to restore order within the country by introducing new laws and reforms that would help improve life for all citizens of Spain. He also abolished feudalism, granted freedom of religion and press, and suppressed military rebellions so that his people could enjoy true freedom from oppression.

Political Systems in Spain

According to, Spain is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy, where the monarch is head of state and the prime minister is the head of government. The government is organized under the framework of a decentralized unitary state, where the nation’s 17 autonomous communities exercise considerable autonomy. The Spanish Constitution of 1978 established a democratic system based on constitutional monarchy and social and economic freedoms.

The Spanish Parliament, which is composed of two chambers, holds legislative power. The lower house is known as Congress of Deputies and it has 350 members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms. The upper house consists of 266 members appointed by regional legislatures for four-year terms. The Parliament has the power to pass laws, approve budgets, declare war and ratify international treaties.

The Prime Minister is appointed by the King from among leaders of parties in Parliament who command majority support in both houses. He or she then forms a government that must be approved by both chambers. Executive power rests with the Council of Ministers, which consists of cabinet ministers headed by the Prime Minister.

In addition to these central authorities there are also 17 autonomous communities in Spain with their own governments responsible for providing health care, education and other public services to their residents. Each autonomous community has its own parliament elected by popular vote as well as an executive branch headed by a President chosen through an electoral process determined by each community’s statute or constitution.

Judiciary System in Spain

According to, the judicial system in Spain is composed of the Supreme Court, which is the highest court in the country and is located in Madrid. This court hears appeals from lower courts and has jurisdiction over civil, criminal, and administrative matters. The Superior Courts of Justice are located in each of the seventeen autonomous regions and have jurisdiction over appeals from lower courts within their respective regions. These courts also hear appeals from other courts within their region. The Provincial Courts are located in each province and are divided into civil, criminal, labor, and administrative sections. These courts have original jurisdiction over all matters within their respective provinces. The lower level courts include Regional Courts, Municipal Courts, and Peace Courts. These courts handle all types of cases depending on their jurisdiction, including civil cases such as family law matters or probate proceedings; criminal cases such as misdemeanors or felonies; labor disputes; or administrative matters such as taxation or building regulations.

Social Conditions in Spain

During the 5th century, Spain was a divided nation with a variety of cultures and ethnicities. In the south, the Visigoths held sway over most of Iberia, while in the north and east, the Suebi and Vandals had their own kingdoms. This created an interesting mix of cultures and customs that would lead to a unique social identity for Spain. For example, many aspects of Spanish culture such as music, dance, language, architecture and food have roots in the different ethnicities that have lived on Spanish soil throughout its history.

The Visigoths were largely Catholic Christians who ruled much of Iberia from around 400-700 AD. During this period they established laws regulating marriage and divorce as well as other aspects of daily life such as dress codes. They also introduced Latin as their official language which was adopted by many other groups in Iberia including Jews and Muslims during this time period. The Visigoths also maintained a strong military which helped to protect their lands from invasion by other nations such as the Moors who invaded in 711 AD.

The Moors introduced many Islamic influences into Spanish culture such as architecture and literature. They also introduced an advanced system of agriculture which included irrigation techniques that are still used today in some parts of Spain. The Moorish influence can be seen throughout southern Spain to this day with its beautiful Islamic architecture found in cities like Granada or Seville.

Finally, with the Reconquista (the Reconquest) beginning in 722 AD Christian forces began reclaiming land from Muslim rule eventually leading to unification under one king in 1492 with Ferdinand II and Isabella I taking control over all of Spain’s territories at that time. This led to a more unified society with Christianity becoming dominant religion across all regions although there were still pockets of Jewish or Muslim populations living within certain areas up until modern times.

Spain Political Systems