The size of energy use in Sweden has changed slightly between 1970 and 2017. As the population increased during the same period, this means that per capita energy consumption has decreased. This is due to more efficient use and that the composition of the business community has changed. The use has to some extent shifted from industry and housing to transport.
The share of the major energy raw materials in the total energy supply has changed during the same period; the supply of oil and oil products has been halved since 1970, while natural gas and, above all, nuclear energy have been added. Biofuels have gradually been given a more important role.
Fossil fuels account for a significantly smaller share of Sweden’s energy use than is the case throughout the EU. By contrast, water and nuclear energy account for a larger proportion.
In the final energy use in 2017, oil and oil products accounted for 23 percent, biofuel, peat and waste accounted for an equal share, coal and coke for 4 percent, natural gas and municipal gas for 2 percent, while electricity based mainly on water and nuclear energy accounted for 33 percent. and district heating, primarily based on biofuels and waste, accounted for just over 13 percent.
The Swedish electricity supply is very climate friendly. Electricity production is almost entirely based on energy sources that do not emit carbon dioxide. About half come from renewable energy raw materials; 2017 was 41 percent water energy and 11 percent wind energy, while a small proportion came from biofuels. Electricity production from non-renewable raw materials takes place at nuclear power plants (39 percent) and to a small extent at thermal power plants.
Electricity production must always be equal to the electricity consumption, otherwise the system will stop working and there will be a power failure. To keep the electricity system in balance, temporary surpluses or deficits in electricity generation can be compensated by imports from or exports to our neighboring countries. This is possible because the management systems are cross-border.
Sweden weather in March, April and May
Average daily temperatures between 1 ° C and 16 ° C can be expected over the next three months. It is mildest in May in Gothenburg, while it is noticeably colder in March in Östersund. Temperatures in Stockholm are between 2 and 15 ° C, in Gothenburg between 5 and 16 ° C and in Östersund between 1 and 13 ° C.
Do you want to go on a beach holiday? The water temperatures are in March, April and May 2-8 ° C. So the weather is not suitable for swimming.
In March it rains on 7 (Stockholm) to 9 days (Gothenburg), in April on 7 (Stockholm) to 8 days (Gothenburg) and in May on 6 (Stockholm) to 9 days (Göteborg), depending on the region.
In the period from March to May the sun shines on average between 4 and 9 hours a day. The sunniest weather is in Stockholm in May, but with less sun you will have to get by in Gothenburg in March.
Sweden’s dependence on fossil fuels has decreased, but as domestic assets are insignificant, Sweden is dependent on imports to meet the need.
Natural gas was introduced in Sweden in 1985 and is used in the municipalities in Skåne and along the west coast that are connected to gas pipeline from Denmark. Furthermore, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is imported from Norwegian gas fields via a gas terminal in Nynäshamn. Natural gas accounts for 2 percent of Sweden’s total energy supply, but the share can amount to 20 percent in the management-connected municipalities. Customers are mainly cogeneration plants in Gothenburg and Malmö as well as large industries. Natural gas is also used as a fuel (vehicle gas).
Sweden’s oil dependency was significant in the early 1970s. Imported oil accounted for 75-80 percent of the entire energy supply. The proportion is now only one third and the tendency is for the importance of oil to diminish.
For heating, oil has been replaced primarily by biofuel and waste, and in the production of electrical energy, nuclear energy is now of the same importance as oil used to be. The important role of oil is now in the transport sector. More than 90 percent of all fuel for cars, trucks and work vehicles is diesel and petrol. The political parties’ ambitions are that transport systems should be independent of fossil fuels by 2030, but the changes are slow.
About 80 percent of the crude oil comes from Norway, the Russian Federation and Denmark, while a small part has come from the UK and Nigeria. Crude oil imports are greater than is needed for the country’s energy supply. Sweden’s oil refineries have overcapacity and the country has surplus in foreign trade in oil products. Of the three major oil refineries, two are in Gothenburg and one in Lysekil. In addition, two smaller ones, one in Nynäshamn and another in Gothenburg. See also fossil fuels.
Large-scale electricity generation developed at the end of the 19th century, after which large hydropower plants were built further north in Sweden. Electricity played a prominent role in Sweden’s modern industrialization, as the important basic industries of the forest and steel industry require a great deal of electrical energy. These industries have been promoted by the fact that water energy is cheap in the country.
Most of the current large hydropower plants were built in the 1940s and 1950s. In 1965, water energy accounted for 95 percent of Swedish electricity production. A growing environmental commitment meant that proposals for continued expansion of water energy met with heavy criticism. In addition, there were plans to build nuclear power plants. In 1970 and the years that followed, the governments decided to save four untouched rivers, the so-called national elves Vindel River, Pite River, Kalix River and Torne River. Subsequently, no major hydropower plants have been built in Sweden. Nowadays, water energy accounts for just over 41 percent of the electricity supply and just over 11 percent of the total energy supply.
The largest power plants are located north of the Dalälven River. From there, almost 90 percent of the country’s water energy comes from. Eight of the sixteen power plants with an output of 200 MW or more are located in the Lule River. Demand for electricity is mainly found in the southern half of Sweden, and it is therefore of the utmost importance that there is a secure electricity system throughout the country.
See also water energy.
Modern wind turbines produce energy at a wind speed of between 4 and 25 meters per second. Wind power can therefore not be the only source of energy, but must be seen as a complement to water energy. The most common size of a wind turbine is 1-2 MW, which is a production that is expected to reach 160 villas annually.
Wind turbines are mainly located in Skåne, along the west coast, in Kalmar county and in Gotland and in Västerbotten county. Since 2007, wind power production has risen sharply and in 2074 wind energy accounted for 11 percent of electricity generation.
Solar cells and wave power can also be expanded in the long term, but so far such energy production is extremely limited. See also wind energy.