Zambia 2007

Yearbook 2007

Zambia. Disagreement over a new constitution characterized the domestic policy debate during the year. The most contentious issue in the new constitution concerns changes in the president’s power. The opposition accused the government of delaying the process and directing the work too much. According to CountryAAH, Lusaka is the capital city of Zambia. President Levy Mwanawasa wants the new constitution, after referral work and public debate, to be adopted by a referendum. He threatened those who oppose a vote of treason.

Zambia Lusaka Places to Visit

In May, a court in London sentenced former President Frederick Chiluba and a number of his associates for embezzling the equivalent of nearly SEK 300 million. He was required to repay 85 percent of the sum to the Zambian state. That a civil case against Chiluba could be raised in London was explained by the misappropriated money, which should have been used for luxury consumption, was passed on through British bank accounts.

Shortly after the verdict in London, the Lusaka trial resumed against the ex-president. The trial has been ongoing since 2004 but has been delayed due to legal technicalities and Chiluba’s failing health. The indictment in Zambia is for a much smaller amount than he was convicted in London; just over three million kronor.

Chinese President Hu Jintao visited Zambia in February, promising new investments for the equivalent of about half a billion SEK in the copper industry and debt amortization. With the help of Chinese, an economic free zone will also be set up around the mining town of Chambeshi. However, the Chinese visit was not uncontested. Shortly before Hu Jintoo’s arrival, the Chinese owners closed Zambia’s largest textile factory after profitability problems. More and more complaints are being heard about poor working conditions in the many Chinese-owned companies.

Zambia weather in March, April and May

Average daily temperatures between 26 ° C and 29 ° C can be expected over the next three months. It gets warmest in April in Mongu, while May is a little cooler in Kasama.

In March it rains for 9 (Lusaka) to 16 days (Kasama), in April for 4 (Lusaka) to 7 days (Kasama) and in May for 0 (Mongu) to 1 days (Lusaka), depending on the region.

In the period from March to May, the sun shines an average of 5 to 10 hours a day. The sunniest weather is in Mongu in May, but with less sun you will have to get by in Kasama in March.

Economy and energy

Most of the citizens of Zambia are employed in the agricultural sector, which however only contributes to 9.6% of the GDP. Traditional crops predominate, especially cereals (maize and millet), peanuts, cassava, yams, cotton, sugar and tobacco, however grown with a low technological contribution.

The mining sector, starting with copper production, drives economic growth and accounts for more than half of the total value of Zambian exports. The major recipients of Lusaka’s exports are the emerging powers: China (29%) and South Africa. In recent years, thanks also to foreign investments, Zambia’s GDP is growing at an average rate of 6%, even if the recent drought has slightly worsened the country’s economic prospects, causing a decrease in agricultural crops and above all an energy crisis due to the emptying of the basins of hydroelectric plants. The growth rate consequently decreased to 4.2% in 2015.

Tourism represents a sector with great potential. For the moment it contributes less than 3% of the national GDP, although in Zambia there are 19 national parks and 23 waterfalls, including the Vittorias. The Zambian Tourism Board aims to quadruple the number of tourists by 2017, thus creating up to one million jobs. To this end, investments are planned in the sector.

In 2009, Zambia received aid from international organizations and numerous Western countries for a total of over one billion dollars.

Economic conditions

Structured, in colonial times, in function of the mining exploitation, the economy of the Zambia attempted a diversification after independence, but with contradictory results, subject to the constraint constituted by the international price of copper. The drastic decline in the value of this raw material (which represents almost a monoproduction) has led the country to rapid indebtedness and the policies to contain public spending have caused a worsening of the living conditions of the population. The per capita income is today among the lowest in the world, the rate of economic growth it is intermittent and inflation is structurally high. Consequently, the country, burdened by a large public and foreign debt and afflicted by a serious health and food emergency, is largely dependent on foreign aid and credits. ● 85% of the active population is dedicated to agricultural activities, cultivating just 7% of the surface; the primary sector contributes 19.7% to GDP (2009). Despite agrarian reforms and expansion projects, the country has not achieved food self-sufficiency, both due to the prevalence of traditional forms of management, not very productive, and due to the recurrence of unfavorable environmental conditions (devastating, for example, the overflow of the Zambezi River in 2000). Subsistence crops are represented by maize, sorghum, rice, millet and cassava, while among the export crops the most economically significant are tobacco, cotton, sugar cane, peanuts and coffee. The exploitation of the forest heritage provides a good production of timber (10 million m3 in 2007). The livestock sector is modest. ● Mining production undoubtedly proves to be the backbone of the economy of the Zambia, among the main world producers of copper (560,000 t in 2008). The deposits are located in the province of Copperbelt and constitute an extension of the mineral deposits of Katanga (Democratic Republic of Congo). In addition to copper, manganese, coal, cadmium, zinc, lead, tin, pyrites, emeralds are also extracted. Gold, silver, selenium and especially cobalt are obtained as by-products from the refining of copper. The Zambian industry (32.4% of GDP with only 6% of the workforce) is mainly organized around the processing of copper (other productions in the chemical, mechanical, food, textile, oil refining, rubber, cement), thanks also to the availability of hydroelectric energy (over 9 billion kWh in 2007), which makes the electrolytic refining of copper, carried out on site, competitive. Tourism offers good opportunities for development, thanks to the attractions of the Victoria Falls area. The trade balance, after many years in surplus, it started to be negative in the early 1990s. Mostly machinery, fuel and foodstuffs are imported; exports are represented for more than 2/3 by minerals and metals (mostly copper). Main trading partners are China, the Republic of South Africa, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the United Arab Emirates. ● Railways (2157 km in 2008) and roads (over 91,000 km, of which about 20,000 are asphalted) follow the colonial network, connected with the then Southern Rhodesia (later Rhodesia, od. Zimbabwe) and then with Mozambique and the Republic of South Africa, and with Tanzania, and aimed at exporting copper, while internal connections are neglected; among the achievements following independence, the most important is the railway (Tan-Zam) that connects the Copperbelt to the port of Dar es Salaam.